Hemingway in Cuba !

Biography of Hemingway in Cuba

“Ernest Hemingway Relates to Cuban Life”

Hemingway at helm of Pilar
Hemingway at the helm of Pilar.

As the US and Cuba warm their relationships moving toward the end of the Trade Embargo we at Web Associates will be opening a software factory in Havana to provide the very best in Nearshore destination’s

visit our work in progress web site www.cuba-it.us

But when I think of Cuba I think of Fishing and yes Hemingway did a lot of fishing back in the day !

Hemingway first visited Cuba in 1928, while on a layover while traveling to Spain. He had arrived from Key West – his home at the time. He and his wife Pauline, their two sons Jack and Patrick, and Pauline’s sister Jinny Pfeiffer stopped over in Havana for 3 days while waiting for their ship, the “Reina de la Pacifica”, to sail. While in Havana, they stayed at the Hotel Ambos Mundos.

Hemingway next visited Cuba in the summer of 1932.  Hemingway went to Cuba with two friends from Key West:  Joe Russell and Joe Lowe. They went to fish the annual Marlin run aboard a boat called “Anita”. They also had a Cuban that they hired onboard to rig baits.

A year later, in 1933, Ernest Hemingway was writing for Esquire Magazine, and he would use his experiences fishing as content for his articles.  He was fishing with a mate he had hired named Carlos Gutierrez, and they continued to fish off the boat “Anita”. Carlos Gutierrez taught him how to rig baits at different depths for Marlin fishing, which was a new concept for Hemingway. One of these articles was called “Marlin off the Morro: a Cuban Letter”.

Hemingway with fish at dock
Hemingway with wahoo and marlin at the dock.

The following year while in Key West, Hemingway purchased a new fishing boat named “Pilar” – a nick name for his wife Pauline. He still had Carlos Gutierrez on board, but he also hosted 2 men from the U. S., Charles Cadwalader who was the director of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural History and Henry Fowler, who was the Academy’s Chief Ichthyologist. These two men were in Cuba trying to sort out the taxonomy of marlin species, trying to figure out if the White, Blue, Black and Striped Marlin were in fact different species from one another, or just color variants of the same species. This was an important scientific trip, and after a month the representatives from the Academy of Natural History had enough information to reclassify all of the marlin species for the North Atlantic.

So stay tuned as we will continue to update you on the return to Havana !

and yes a little fishing report as well !


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BYOD ” What’s next ? ” CYOD

iPhoneBring’ Turns to ‘Choose’ in The Next Phase of Mobile Device Strategy

The term ‘BYOD’ (Bring Your Own Device) was first coined in 2009, however it wasn’t until 2010 that CIOs realised they could no longer ignore the influx of personal devices in the workplace. During the formative years of BYOD throughout 2010 – 2013, a growth in apps, tablets and smartphones saw BYOD develop from a buzzword to an integrated part of internal IT strategy. According to Aberdeen Research, by 2011, 75% of enterprises had a BYOD policy. By 2012, data breaches and IT hacks were taking the shine off BYOD and businesses became focused on communicating clear BYOD policies to concerned users.


Fast forward to 2015 and BYOD is now into the next phase – a declining one. Instead of a BYOD strategy, many organisations are embracing CYOD (Choose Your Own Device) policies. A managed alternative to BYOD, CYOD sees organisations offering a range of pre-approved, corporate-owned devices for employees to choose from.

IDC’s John Delaney addressed this turn of trends last July stating, “What we’re seeing in Europe now is an increasing preference for CYOD – ‘Choose Your Own Device’”. The bi-annual IDC survey revealed that 41% of the European enterprise sector had no plans to offer BYOD. However, this development is not just affecting European enterprises and countries. CYOD is a growing trend across the globe, with IDC’s 2014 Asia-Pacific predictions stating “BYOD as an enterprise mobile strategy is dead and eligible users will be given a choice of device that they can use for work, also referred to as CYOD”.

The replacement of BYOD with CYOD is largely down to two main factors: security and cost. With a CYOD strategy, organisations can implement a more secure resource program. Typically, each device is put through rigorous IT testing and certification. The growing trend toward private cloud deployments – where each device that can connect to the internal cloud network must be secured – is a good example of how CYOD makes integrating infrastructure resources simpler for CIOs and CTOs. Unlike BYOD where employees are able to access the corporate cloud and store confidential or sensitive data on personal devices, CYOD allows for IT to assume full responsibility of corporate resources.

Secondly, it was originally believed that BYOD could help organisations reduce costs, however an increasing number of companies are realising that the total cost of ownership is actually higher with a BYOD strategy. Due to the fact that BYOD relies on employees bring their own devices in to use at work, companies lose the ability to bargain with telecoms companies for lower-cost plans. Additionally, for larger corporations, standardising mobility creates stability and ultimately efficiency.

Employees are less likely to see the need for BYOD, particularly if their company is offering a choice of devices and therefore whether they own the device or not is less of a priority.  Moreover it’s argued that a corporate-owned IT model (CYOD) sees IT spend 20% of their support to address the issues of 80% of users, whereas in a BYOD model, 20% of users will take up 80% of IT’s support. This is most probably due to the differing range of devices and operating systems (OS) open to the corporate network when BYOD models are deployed.

What CYOD is really about, is IT regaining some control and securing applications in the face of an increasing mobile workforce and a growing number of personal devices. To observe this evolution of BYOD is fascinating for Web Associates LLC, as technology developments and IT trends are constantly shaping our solutions.

Thanks to Ben Mendoza for the post !


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Internet of Things Growth Continues to Surge

Photostogo-509807Internet of Things Growth Continues to Surge

Recent research from IDC predicts that the global Internet of Things market will grow from $655.8 billion in 2014 to $1.7 trillion in 2020. This confirms that IoT technology continues to be integrated within a cross-section of industries. The sectors will be mainly made up of IT services, connectivity and devices used to access IoT. Alongside this, there will be an increase in the number of platforms and software used to support the IoT.


The estimated growth of IoT will primarily be due to a substantial rise in the number of connected devices and objects that are connected to the Internet, predicted by Cisco to reach 50 billion by 2020. The growing use of cloud services is also essential to the success of this industry, meaning IoT connected devices can access vital information and data in real-time. The platforms and services supporting the IoT will expand, to make up a significant proportion of the industry’s revenue and contributing to its overall growth. Another factor behind the growth of IoT is the rising number of mobile device users worldwide.

The manufacturing industry will benefit immensely from the increased use of IoT. It will allow manufacturers to improve efficiency rates through providing real time information on systems and practices to identify areas for development and improve decision-making. IoT in the manufacturing industry is expected to more than double from $42.2 billion to $98.8 billion by 2018.  An example of IoT use in the manufacturing sector is the introduction of smart meters in control systems, building and maintaining links between separate islands of automation.

The IoT will also be prevalent in the retail industry, supporting retailers to increase sales and attract new customers. An example of this will be the use of digital signage, which can be controlled and monitored through the use of IoT, creating rich digital experiences for the consumer. This is demonstrated through predictions that the digital signage sector will grow to around $27.5 billion, by 2018. The increase in the use of IoT in the retail industry is also driven by its ability to improve the nurturing of businesses relationships with customers, by allowing them to collect specific data about the customer and how they’re using their connected devices.

The fast pace of the growth can be explained by the rate at which technology is advancing, resulting in a decline in the cost of implementing IoT into business practices. The cost savings that the IoT offers are also seen as a reason for its fast growth, however the increased growth means the IoT workload will be upped by 750%, as billions of connected devices produce masses of data.

At Web Associates LLC, recognising the need to manage the costs of the abundance of connected devices is not only crucial for businesses to get the most out of its capabilities, but is essential to ensure the success of the IoT industry.

Thanks to Ben Mendoza for the post !

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The Growing Investment in Cloud IT infrastructure

Photostogo-509807Impact of the growing investment in Cloud IT infrastructure

According to IT analyst house, IDC, total cloud infrastructure spending will increase by 21% – to $32bn this year. These latest figures mean spending on cloud infrastructure will account for approximately a third of all IT infrastructure spending – up from 28% in 2014. Cloud computing has been a disruptive phenomenon to the infrastructure market over the past few years with these latest figures from IDC highlighting this even further. The growing investment into cloud technology, such as servers, hardware and software, may mean more companies will seek to gain a better understanding of the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) of IT.


Many award-winning applications, including Telecom Expense Management (TEM) and Market Data Management (MDM) solutions, can be delivered as Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) via the cloud. The extensible nature of these services means customers are able to add support for emerging technology costs, such as the public cloud. What’s more, customers with TEM or MDM applications already in place, will find it is easier to expand the features when the application is cloud-based.

It’s clear to see why cloud infrastructure spending is on the rise, with more and more organisations of all sizes adopting and implementing cloud strategy. It has the potential to make IT organisations more responsive than ever and promises economic advantages. It is clear that migration to cloud is commonly associated with cost savings, but Gartner’s 2014 CIO Agenda survey found that only 14% of respondents cited cost savings as their main reason for cloud migration, with the top reason being agility.

In today’s complex business landscape, being agile in the face of changing business conditions is the norm and it is as a valued commodity for organisations. As cloud providers offer self-service and immediate updates, organisations can respond to potential business threats or changes in the business landscape in a much more efficient, and time-sensitive manner.

Another advantage of the cloud in today’s global economy is the ability to access the cloud from any location. The ability to sync up documents and share apps allow for organisations to be more collaborative and a recent study by Frost and Sullivan found that companies which invested in collaborative technologies, such as the cloud, had a 400% return on investment.

The growing investment in cloud infrastructure is further emphasised, with spending expected to top $52bn by 2019 according to IDC. This will inevitably mean more companies are to adopt cloud technologies in the next five years. Evolution of the cloud will see organisations – particularly multinational companies, seeking enhanced tools for monitoring Total Cost of Ownership of IT – an area in which many TEM co’s have vast experience and advanced analytical software to help manage the process

Thanks to Ben Mendoza for the post !

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The History of Memorial Day !

USA_FlagAs you are preparing to enjoy your day off this upcoming Memorial Day holiday, you may be wondering about the history of Memorial Day. Memorial Day officially became a holiday on May 5, 1868, as proclaimed by General John Logan. However, the holiday also began to be observed on the 30th of May by other groups of U.S. citizens during that same year, and has since evolved to be celebrated on the last Monday in May each year. In addition to the national holiday, in the year 2000, the U.S. government enacted the National Moment of Remembrance, which observes an official moment of silence at 3 p.m. in each of the U.S. time zones for prayer and reflection. You may be planning to celebrate Memorial Day outdoors at a picnic, barbeque, the beach, or at a party, enjoying time with your friends and family; however, let’s not forget the real reason this day is a holiday, and take a few moments at 3 p.m. in the midst of your celebrations to remember those who have fallen in defense of the freedoms you are enjoying as a citizen of the United States. And if you see a veteran, be sure to thank him or her!

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BYOD and the end for Fixed Line Telephones !

iPhoneAs Bring Your Own Device Flexes Its Muscles, Is It the End for Fixed Line Telephones?

One of the only things which grows as quickly as software and high technology hardware is the number of books produced by management gurus predicting The Next Big Thing.

Management gurus were amongst the first people to realise that the high tech revolution would not only enable them to sell more books and produce even more theories, but that it would allow these theories to multiply faster than Japanese knot weed in a wet garden. And right now, on both sides of the Atlantic, there are a lot of very wet gardens.

In which case it’s not surprising that the gurus have been egging each other on to adopt and execute trends faster than anyone else can possibly manage.

One of the more enduring trends of the year, both in its entertainment and business value, is bring your own device (BYOD). The latest prediction is that BYOD will make traditional fixed line phone systems redundant as early as – in the case of some of the more extreme forecasts – the end of 2015.

At first glance, this might seem wildly optimistic. However, RingCentral , a cloud business communications solutions provider, recently conducted a study (reported in Fierce Wireless) which found personal mobile devices are now so prevalent in the modern workplace that they are rendering traditional Voice phone systems completely obsolete.

Among the survey’s key findings are:

  •  Half of respondents use mobile phones even while sitting at their desk, with a traditional desk phone in front of them
  •  88 per cent of employees use their mobile phones for work purposes while on personal time, including evenings, breaks, weekends and vacations
  •  70 per cent of respondents believe office phones will eventually be replaced by mobile phones
  •  Millennial workers are particularly likely to believe all the above is true

“Mobile devices are turning into true business tools and are transforming the workplace as a whole, from shifting traditional business hours to changing how employees interact via voice, video, text and other business applications. We believe that all these changes are making legacy on-premise phone systems obsolete, as they do not meet modern business needs.” said RingCentral President David Berman.

Praful Shah, RingCentral’s VP of Strategy, told FierceMobile that his firm has been seeing a “tremendous behavior change going on with BYOD”. He confirmed that a growing number of companies are giving in to their employees’ desires to use their own mobile devices for work: as a result, for some employees the traditional company-provided phone is seeing little use. Obviously, this isn’t happening with all employees, but it’s taking place with enough to be impacting the demands placed on phone systems.

Asked what stood out for him in the research, Shah suggested it was the degree to which employees are using their personal devices to carry out work. He said he had previously assumed the practice to be popular, but not to the degree the revealed in the survey. He noted: “Eighty-eight per cent of employees are using mobile phones in their personal time for work. That is a phenomenally high percentage.”

These are impressive figures, which are matched by other statistics on mobile phone use. For example, a recent Gartner Group study into mobile phone take-up within the enterprise also noted that 76% of all website visits are carried out on a mobile phone.

The result is a shift in what organizations may need to provide in terms of physical fixed line handsets. This concentration of mobile use will almost certainly reduce the traditional fixed line to an anachronism, like the fax machine: something which sits on the corner of your desk and is rarely used. The reality will almost certainly be that fixed line telephones will only be provided, in future, as conference call facilities in boardrooms or as an executive status symbol.

Combined with the increase in home and mobile workers, there seems no doubt that the fixed line telephone is on its way out, at least as a business tool. Increasingly, we’ll see very few companies moving into new premises and installing fixed line phones, to the point that we will be hard-pressed to find a fixed line in any enterprise other than for data traffic. Why install something if it is an unneeded cost centre?

Like the trusty red BT telephone box, the fixed line voice handset will go the way of all flex. The only question remaining for the management gurus to answer is when?

What say you !

Thanks to Bill Boyle for the post !

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The Era of Unified Communications !

iPhoneThe Era of Unified Communications

There are varying definitions for unified communications (UC) and if you speak to just a handful of leaders from different industries, they will most likely have a different take on the topic. Put simply though, unified communications ties together the ways we communicate, allowing people to send a message on one device and receive the same communication on another.

Emerging in the 1980’s, UC quickly turned from a long-term trend to a key investment and opportunity, which played a role in the growth of enterprise. Over the past decade, CIOs and IT Directors have used UC to help companies improve efficiency and achieve growth. The need to communicate seamlessly across a variety of devices is paramount to surviving in today’s globalised economy. Now, according to a Frost and Sullivan report, more than 52% of employees surveyed used UC applications.

UC brings with it a number of benefits for companies and their employees. Connected information and teams allow for a collaborative working environment. Access to video on demand across mediums is simple and hassle free. Company productivity and output tends to increase as a result as mobile workers are always connected to the corporate network.

But what about the drawbacks to UC? This is where TEM plays a role. Although unified communications aims to ultimately improve productivity and increase efficiency, it can be costly to implement. This is identified as one of the main drawbacks – in fact 73% of companies, with more than 5,000 employees, cited cost as an obstacle to implementing UC.

One of the core challenges of unified communications is ‘cost displacement’. This occurs when calls are answered from an end point that is outside of the VoIP network. As a portion of the call must be established between the closest gateway on the network – this will ultimately be charged by the PSTN service provider and usually to the company implementing UC.

Today’s TEM solution’s addresses this challenge, complementing VoIP cost management by connecting to and collecting information from key network components. This information is then reconciled using smart algorithms, taking many complex factors into consideration and providing reports that visually represent the results. This solution provides many of our global clients with a clear graphical data visualisation and insight into where off-net calls are occurring across their VoIP network.

Although unified communications has been a key investment and opportunity for the past 10 years, the world and working environment is become increasingly mobile. Gartner is predicting that by 2018, more than 50% of users will use a mobile or tablet first for all online activities. Ultimately this means that although UC has received investment for more than a decade, it’s a constant work-in-progress.

What say you ?

Thanks to Ben Mendoza for the post !


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Mobile World Congress

The Shifting Mobile Landscape Combines Hardware, Software And Networks

Last week, many companies  attended the 2015 Mobile World Congress in Barcelona. As many market leader’s in Telecom Expense Management (TEM) and Market Data Management (MDM) solutions attended the event, they realize the importance  to attend significant exhibitions and conferences. It not only provides them with a chance to present their work to industry leaders and heavyweights, but also allows them to discuss new developments in the field. Much of the work crosses the mobile industry and the 2015 Mobile World Congress outlined some thought provoking future plans from some of the world’s biggest technology players.

One of the most noteworthy projects announced was Google’s ‘Project Nova’. The move will see Google transfer into the wireless carrier network industry and allow users to seamlessly switch between mobile networks and Wi-Fi. Similarly to Tesco Mobile, it will operate as a mobile virtual network operator (MVNO).

What’s interesting though is that Google state they’re not aiming to compete against traditional carriers such as AT&T, T-Mobile, Verizon or Sprint, but rather work with them and “help drive a set of a set of innovations which we think the ecosystem should adopt”. Google states that – similarly to the Google Nexus – it will be low cost, but high performance. It doesn’t aim to eradicate the competition, but show the market their capabilities and inspire carrier partners – if they’re of a high enough standard – to adopt them.

Project Nova appears to be part of a wider initiative from Google to combine the three-pronged approach of hardware, software and networks. Another Google project discussed at the 2015 Mobile World Congress was ‘Project Loon’, which started two years ago and is anticipated to launch commercially by 2016. The project plans a series of ‘balloons’ floating in the stratosphere, partnered with telecommunications companies to share mobile spectrum and ultimately enable end users to connect to the ‘balloon network’ from their phones and other smart devices.

It appears it’s not only Google who wish to get the offline population connected. Facebook is also looking to connect the 4 billion people who ‘live offline’. Partnering with telecoms companies including Samsung and Nokia, Facebook aim to bring more people online by providing free access to specific websites. This project has already launched in developing regions of the world including India, Africa and Colombia. Zuckerberg’s desire to connect developing countries is admirable, but offering Internet access for free can be worrying for telco’s such as Vodafone and Airtel, as you have to ask, who’s picking up the bill?

What’s exciting to see though is the connectivity and growing synergy between technology and telecoms. The technology giants of today see now as the prime opportunity to combine hardware, software and network capabilities and we’re all intrigued to learn more about the consequences and effects on the wireless industry.

It will be a heck of a ride !

Thanks to Ben Mendoza for the post !


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Malware Attacks are on the rise !

Malware Attacks Are on the Rise – Is Your Business Ready?

With malware attacks on the rise in all parts of the industry, and the growth of enterprise mobility practices such as BYOD on the increase, it seems a good time to publish a primer on the subject, covering what threats to expect and how to guard against them.

Malware: The Basics

Malware is on the rise, with 28.4 million1 cyber attacks involving financial malware in 2013 alone. But what is it?

Malware is software code specifically designed to disrupt, damage or invade a computer system, most commonly for monetary profit or to access sensitive information. Some malware, such as viruses, infects all systems with which it comes into contact and spreads either by automatically installing and running itself on the host system or by actively transmitting itself over a network. Other malware, such as “Trojans”, includes software which is designed to remain concealed, monitoring and accessing your private data, such as bank details, etc.

The most obvious point of danger within a business is your server and the data it holds, and the risk of the dreaded “data breach”. Understanding how malware works and is used is the first step towards improving detection and preventing threats.

Attacks via the internet are increasing every year, and don’t discriminate between multinationals and small businesses. If a hacker can find a way to infiltrate malicious code into your server and access files or log information exchanges, they have ready access to sensitive information such as customer data, credit card information, passwords and more.

Exposing client or customer data in this way can lead not only to legal action and lost business with the customer themselves, but also significant impact on the organisation through reputational damage and loss of credibility with the market – and that’s apart from the direct costs of additional labour charges, compensation and hardware and software repairs.

While some malware can attack and disrupt your server, other code is designed to attack your customers directly via, for example, spam emails or pay-per-click advertising. Phishing attacks are becoming more effective through the use of social media, as hackers learn to customise their malware and target their victims more successfully.

More importantly for larger organisations, malware can be placed on your website which instantly downloads to a customer’s device whenever they visit your page, or redirects them to another site which contains a concealed infection.

Smartphones and tablets are increasingly being targeted by hackers, especially Android devices who attracted 98.05%2 of all detected infections in 2013. The growth of mobility within the enterprise in general, and BYOD in particular, is particularly significant, bringing with it a plethora of devices and operating systems which make it increasingly difficult for the IT Dept to monitor threats and take pre-emptive action. In the absence of central policies and enforceable procedures, users struggle to keep their anti-virus and security software up to date, while companies put off urgent patch upgrades in order to minimise disruption to the business. With so many new platforms and IT struggling to cope, hackers are constantly finding new openings.


Keeping your staff fully up to date on the risks of malware and phishing attacks is key, so they understand the company security policy and the importance of regularly scanning their devices for vulnerabilities and possible infection. Regular scans of the company and, where hosted internally, website servers are equally important, to detect concealed infections which are quietly stealing information in the background.

With such a playground for hackers to enjoy, guarding your personal device and/or those of your company can be extremely challenging. Security is paramount and the repercussions of neglecting device protection can have serious consequences for your business. Updating security software and running regular checks seems simple when it’s just a few people, but when the company is global or includes tens of thousands of employees, higher level protection solutions are required.


Malware’s purpose is to compromise the functionality of your IT and communication systems, and exploit or compromise the data held within those systems for the publisher’s – or, in some cases, the publisher’s own client’s – commercial or strategic gain.

Hackers are constantly evolving their code to slip past the barriers erected to keep them out. The only solution is constant vigilance, coupled with regular anti-malware updates and thorough checks of the business’ servers and the systems connected to them, either directly over the corporate network or remotely via the internet. With the growth of BYOD, the need is even greater for the organisation to have in place proper Enterprise Mobility Management (EMM) and Mobile Device Management (MDM) policies, together with adequate monitoring and enforcement procedures.

Anything less puts your business, your data and your customers at risk.

Thanks to Emma Griffin for the post !


1. http://www.kaspersky.com/about/news/virus/2014/Kaspersky-Lab-statistics-attacks-involving-financial-malware-rise-to-28-million-in-2013

2. http://securelist.com/analysis/kaspersky-security-bulletin/58335/mobile-malware-evolution-2013/


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Apple Pay !

Apple Pay Technology and Enterprise

New technologies releases can have a profound impact on enterprise, as businesses adopt novel systems in order to improve efficiency. In terms of enterprise mobility management (EMM), the recent release of the iPhone 6 and 6Plus (and associated software to launch them into the enterprise market) may herald the start of a new era for working on the move – especially with the introduction of Apple Pay, which is due to be released in the US later this month.

Apple Pay is a new payment method which can be utilised by customers of the new iPhones or the Apple Watch. Rumoured to be the final step in merging online and off-line shopping, the new facility allows people to pay for goods using their mobile device whether out on the high street, buying from a website or from the app store. When in a participating bricks-and-mortar store, users can carry out transactions using Apple Pay simply by holding their phone to the appropriate reader with their finger on Touch ID. There is no need to open an app or even to unlock the phone to enable this, and the user is ‘informed’ of payment completion by the phone beeping and/or vibrating.

Using the Apple Watch, the payment will be enabled by holding the device near to the reader and double-clicking the appropriate button (although this facility will not be available until 2015). Making use of Near Field Communication (NFC), the new payment system is described by Apple as easy, secure and private.

Recent reports have suggested that Apple initially wished to join forces with well-known online payment provider PayPal, to start a service which would be considered more trustworthy by users – and which would also open doors when it came to working with numerous retailers. PayPal is generally ahead of the curve in terms of mobile payments, allowing the use of QR Codes and able to work with near field technologies of various kinds – making them the ideal bedfellow for the launch of Apple Pay. However, despite Apple’s early enthusiasm, the deal did not go ahead: rumour has it this was due to the fact that PayPal had already opted to work with arch-rival Samsung on their S5 fingerprint scanner.

Given that contactless card payments are now quite popular among shoppers and retailers, it’s likely that Apple Pay will gradually become more widely used and will pave the way for similar provisions by rival mobile brands. Individual users may find this allows them to keep tabs on their expenditure quickly and easily – but how will this influence the management of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) or Corporate-Owned, Personally-Enabled (COPE) plans? With the limited information available so far, this is hard to determine, but we look below into some issues which will need to be addressed for Apple Pay to work in a mobile enterprise:

Multiple accounts – if a device is owned for both personal and business use, will users be able to use more than one account for payments? If so, how easy will it be to specify which to use (will the opening of an app be required, thus making Apple Pay less convenient?) and how easy will mistakes be to track and correct?

Payment information – If a device is used for business and personal use and detailed bills are provided, will these be made available to employers without user amendments? Many employees will not wish employers to have access to all their transaction details, and employers will not want information about business spending potentially hidden.

Security – if Apple Pay is to be used to make business payments, the company will need to reassure corporate clients that the security offered is effective and that, if a device is lost or stolen, the facility can be halted remotely with immediate effect.

Once these enterprise queries have been answered, more and more business users may begin to utilise Apple Pay. Some may have security fears – but how much more or less secure will this method prove to be when compared with contactless cards and the provision of cash? It remains to be seen.

Thanks to Anne Britton for the post !

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